# Energy-efficient trains

**Tractive effort (N)**

- When Speed ≤ 4.2 m/s
- When 4.2 m/s ≤ Speed ≤ 24.9 m/s
- - * Speed
- When 24.9 m/s ≤ Speed
- - * Speed

**Braking force (N)**

**Mass (Kg)**

**Switching points (m)**

Max acceleration to cruise

Cruise to coast

Coast to max breaking

Cruise to coast

Coast to max breaking

**Track gradient (deg)**

**Davis equation coefficients**

+ * Speed + * Speed

^{2}